The Nile Valley
One of the earliest civilizations to evolve also happens to be among the most famous. This civilization grew out of the peoples who inhabited the valley cut out by Africa’s Nile River.
The Nile River provided an endless source of fresh water, fertile soil, and food. For thousands of miles in all directions this part of Africa is covered by the sands of the desert. The lands around the Nile River, however, are quite different. Over hundreds of thousands of years, flooding of the river has deposited a thick layer of rich fertile silt across the landscape.
The people living in this area dug irrigation ditches which carried the invaluable waters out from the Nile River to their farms, making the area perfect for growing food.