The New Kingdom
In 1700 B.C. two things happened that once again shattered the peace of the Egyptian nation. These two things were a renewed civil war, as well as the threat of invasion by a desert people known as the Hyksos. Using superior weapons and technology, the Hyksos eventually conquered the Egyptians and would rule for the next century. However, the Egyptians despised them and eventually were able to overthrow them, beginning the period known as the New Kingdom.
The kings of the New Kingdom were the first to be referred to as pharaohs. These pharaohs once again united Egypt, and using the military skills which they learned from the Hyksos, they expanded their territory immensely across new lands.
As their territory grew, so did their power and wealth. The capital, located in Thebes, reflected a wealth of art, gold, treasures, fine cloth, and large construction projects.