Around 7,000 years ago changing weather patterns forced people to migrate from the Arabian Peninsula Northward in search of water. Decreasing rainfall meant that important lakes and streams, critical to life, were no longer available.
The Tigris and Euphrates rivers provided the perfect location for these peoples to settle. These two large rivers run along side each other, and span hundreds of miles. Between these rivers are found a crescent shaped landscape where the soil is fertile and deep. This area is known as the Fertile Crescent.
Some of the first cities on Earth formed in the Fertile Crescent. Many of these cities banded together forming small kingdoms. One of the greatest of these kingdoms was known as Mesopotamia.
The last thing one knows is what to put first.
The longest reigning monarch in history was Pepi II, who ruled Egypt for 90 years.