After defeating the Assyrians in 612 B.C., the Chaldeans formed a new empire, which would rule and govern the Fertile Crescent. Under the rule of King Nebuchadnezzar, the Chaldeans built a powerful and wealthy nation.
They conquered many of their neighbors and built their capital city of Babylon into one of the most beautiful cities in the world.
After the death of King Nebuchadnezzar in 562 B.C., the Chaldean Empire quickly fell into decline. By 539 B.C. they were conquered by the Persians.