The first civilization to appear in northern Africa was that of the Nubians. The Nubians lived in villages along the Nile River just south of Egypt around 3000 B.C. The fertile soils and endless fresh water from the Nile made Nubia the perfect location to build a city. The city they built was one of the most sophisticated of the time. Nubian kings, noblemen, and merchants grew wealthy through trade with Egypt and other peoples. Elaborate Nubian tombs have been found, showing that the kings of the time were as wealthy as the Egyptian kings of the same era.