The Kingdom of Kush
After a thousand years Nubia gradually evolved, becoming larger and more powerful. By 2000 B.C., Nubia was known as the Kingdom of Kush. The people of this kingdom traded ivory and other treasures from southern Africa with the peoples who lived further north.
Around 1500 B.C., Egyptian leaders sent armies in to overpower Kush. For nearly 500 years, Kush would be controlled by the Egyptians, and would be forced to pay the Pharaoh a tribute. Eventually, however, around 1000 B.C., Kush was able to turn the tables, winning their freedom from Egypt. Then, in 724 B.C., led by a Kushite king named Piankhi, a large and well trained Kushite army was able to invade Egypt and control it.
In 671 B.C., the Assyrians, who had superior weaponry, were able to run the Kushites out of Egypt, and rule it for themselves. The Assyrians used iron weapons, which were harder and more powerful than the bronze weapons that the Kushites used.
After leaving Egypt and returning to their original borders, the Kingdom of Kush entered a golden age. For the next 150 years, the Kushites grew wealthy. They were able to build large comfortable homes, and plan beautiful cities. This golden age was, however, brought to an end by a people known as the Axums, who invaded around 500 B.C. from the East.