From 1000 A.D.through 1258 A.D., the Islamic state began to see a long slow period of decline. The massive empire that had been conquered by Islam, and brought under the rule of one leader began to splinter into smaller groups led by local leaders.
By 1258 A.D., the caliph in Baghdad ruled nothing more than Baghdad itself and a small territory around it. In this year, the Mongols entered the region and destroyed the city of Baghdad. They slaughtered over 50,000 of the city's residents as they sought to control it.
The more a man know, the more he forgives.
Catherine The Great
Until the 984 foot high Eiffel Tower was built in 1889, the Washington Monument in Washington, D.C. was the tallest building in the world at 555 feet.