As a result of the constant attacks by the Vikings and other nomads, the governments of Europe were constantly under attack. Communities did not feel that their governments were providing adequate protection for them against outsiders. The economies of Western Europe were in shambles, and trade routes were disrupted.
As the monarchs of central governments lost power, a new type of government evolved called Feudalism. Feudalism began in France around 900 A.D., and spread throughout the remainder of Europe within 150 years.
A friend hears the song in my heart and sings it to me when my memory fails.
Pioneer Girls Leaders Handbook
John Jay was the first Chief Justice of the American Supreme Court.