As a result of the constant attacks by the Vikings and other nomads, the governments of Europe were constantly under attack. Communities did not feel that their governments were providing adequate protection for them against outsiders. The economies of Western Europe were in shambles, and trade routes were disrupted.
As the monarchs of central governments lost power, a new type of government evolved called Feudalism. Feudalism began in France around 900 A.D., and spread throughout the remainder of Europe within 150 years.
It is only with the heart that one can see rightly; what is essential is invisible to the eye.
Antoine De Saint-Exupery
In the winter of 1848, a large chunk of ice blocked Niagara Falls for 30 minutes. This is the only time that the waterfall is known to have stopped flowing.