In 1059 A.D., the Church instituted a series of reforms that were meant to bring them closer to God. Up until this time, popes were usually appointed by kings, and local bishops and cardinals were appointed by their local lords.
The Church ruled that from this time on, popes would be elected to office by cardinals, and that cardinals, bishops, and other leaders would be appointed by higher officials.
We cannot confront solitude without moral resources.
Honore De Balzac
The Hundred Years War actually lasted for 116 years.