The Inca Empire
In the Andes Mountains around A.D. 1200 a civilization developed independently from the civilizations of Mesoamerica. This civilization would become known as the Incas.
By the late 1200s A.D., the Incas had settled in the city of Cuzco, which would eventually become their capital. In 1438 A.D., Pachacuti became the king of the Incas. He and his son Topa began a great period of expansion, creating what would be the largest empire in the New World, and one of the largest empires in the entire world.
The Incas formed a powerful central government. Pachacuti allowed local leaders to continue governing the people so long as they remained loyal to him. If they did not, he relocated the people to distant parts of his kingdom where they would not pose a threat.
He passed and recorded laws that were consistent throughout the empire, and founded courts, trade routes, and initiated many building projects that strengthened his empire.
In order to further unite the people, Pachacuti required all his subjects to learn and speak a common language. This language was called Quechua. There are still many people in these regions who speak Quechua to this day.