The Ottoman Empire Declines
By 1600 A.D., the Ottoman Empire had reached its height. Istanbul was among the most prosperous and beautiful cities on Earth. They had conquered vast stretches of territory, and had learned to rule it successfully.
From this point on, the empire gradually began to decline. In 1683, King John III Sobieski from Poland led his armies in defeating the armies of the Ottomans in Vienna. This crushing defeat marked the end of the expansion of the Ottoman Empire.
In 1856, Sultan Abdul-Mejid I attempted to reform his empire in an effort to save it. He issued a decree known as the Hatt-I Humayun. This decree granted the rights of citizenship to everyone living within the empire, and attempted to create more freedoms for all his people, while improving economic growth.
These efforts were unsuccessful and eventually led to his son being overthrown. Within just a few years the Ottoman Empire would collapse.